Glucose in the bloodstream passes through the kidneys, where it can either be excreted or reabsorbed.   Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) works in the kidney to reabsorb glucose, and a new class of medication, SGLT2 inhibitors, block this action, causing excess glucose to be eliminated in the urine. Canagliflozin (Invokana), dapagliflozin (Farxiga), and empagliflozin (Jardiance) are SGLT2 inhibitors that have been approved by the FDA to treat type 2 diabetes.  Because they increase glucose levels in the urine, side effects can include urinary tract and yeast infections.
Dr. Steven Lin is a dentist who focusses on the mouth-body connection. Through ancestral nutrition, the oral and gut microbiome, and epigenetics, his programs aim to prevent chronic dental and systemic disease. His book 'The Dental Diet', will be released on January 18'. To receive free updates on functional oral health from Dr. Lin, subscribe to his newsletter below.

The BAS colesevelam (Welchol) is a cholesterol-lowering medication that also reduces blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes.  BASs help remove cholesterol from the body, particularly LDL cholesterol, which is often elevated in people with diabetes.  The medications reduce LDL cholesterol by binding with bile acids in the digestive system; the body in turn uses cholesterol to replace the bile acids, which lowers cholesterol levels. The mechanism by which colesevelam lowers glucose levels is not well understood. Because BASs are not absorbed into the bloodstream, they are usually safe for use by patients who may not be able to use other medications because of liver problems. Because of the way they work, side effects of BASs can include flatulence and constipation.
Researcher Qizhi Tang, PhD, at the University of California, San Francisco, is studying the changes induced in beta cells by the shortage of oxygen and nutrients. Stem cell-derived islets have a low survival rate in the first few days after transplant due to the lack of adequate oxygen and nutrient supplies. However, the American Diabetes Association states, “Evidence suggests that beta cells can be trained to survive oxygen and nutrient shortages that they are exposed to before and after transplantation.”
A newer class of diabetes medication, SGLT2 includes three medicines: canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin. These drugs remove extra sugar from your body by blocking it from the kidneys. It also causes your body to be more sensitive to insulin. The most common side effects caused by SGLT2 are vaginal yeast infections and urinary tract infections.

Anti-diabetic medications are used to control type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this case, body cells are resistant to insulin (injections), therefore medications are given orally to lower the blood glucose levels. In most of the cases, oral hypoglycemic agents are highly effective. One just needs to ascertain which suits him/her the best. There are several classes of anti-diabetic drugs. Largely, their selection depends on the nature of the diabetes, age and situation of the person, as well as other factors.


Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors help control blood sugar levels by preventing the digestion of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates include starchy foods like potatoes and corn. They also include most grains (bread, rice, crackers, cereal) and sugary sweets. The two medicines in this group are acarbose and miglitol. These medicines may cause bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and flatulence (gas).

The study included 298 patients, aged 20 to 65, who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within the previous six years. Half of the patients were put on a low-calorie diet and lost an average of 10 to 15 kg (22 to 33 pounds). The other half of patients, who served as a control group, received the best diabetes management available — but that did not include a weight loss program.
Indian gooseberry is one of the richest sources of vitamin C. When mixed with bitter gourd juice, its efficacy manifolds, and it can prove to be a highly effective concoction against diabetes. The mixture arouses the islets of Langerhans, that is, the isolated group of cells that secrete the hormone insulin in the pancreas. Just consume one tablespoon of Indian gooseberry juice mixed with one cup of bitter gourd juice daily for 8 to 12 weeks. It is recommended to take it first thing in the morning, if possible. The mixture has also been found to trigger insulin production. All in all, a great herbal remedy for diabetes.
A new study from the Faustman Lab at Massachusetts General Hospital suggests that a nearly 100 year old tuberculosis vaccine called BCG may hold cure-like promise  for people  with Type 1 diabetes. The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, one of the oldest vaccines in the world, was developed for tuberculosis protection and for early stage bladder cancer therapy. 
Indian gooseberry is one of the richest sources of vitamin C. When mixed with bitter gourd juice, its efficacy manifolds, and it can prove to be a highly effective concoction against diabetes. The mixture arouses the islets of Langerhans, that is, the isolated group of cells that secrete the hormone insulin in the pancreas. Just consume one tablespoon of Indian gooseberry juice mixed with one cup of bitter gourd juice daily for 8 to 12 weeks. It is recommended to take it first thing in the morning, if possible. The mixture has also been found to trigger insulin production. All in all, a great herbal remedy for diabetes.
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I read ur research i am totally fovour of ur research but i tell u homeopathic treatment is very sucessful for the help of curing debetic. i am a homeopathic doctor if any patient wants help for medicine call me on my cell 092 321 5260211 and i will give full guidence for debetic patients free of cost becoz it will be treatment of human not a single man i am in pakistan punjab attock city
The book instructs readers on how to use the five essentials of health to achieve a diabetes-free life. Through easy, quick exercises (how does 5 minutes a day sound?); tasty, anti-inflammatory recipes; and many other innovative tips, Dr. Fleckenstein lays out a clear, manageable plan to leave diabetes behind. And ending the struggle with blood sugar is just the start, as this 5-step plan also teaches readers how to shed 5, 10, or even 50 pounds along the way. 

Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent.
Together with evidence of normalization of insulin secretion after bariatric surgery (84), insights into the behavior of the liver and pancreas during hypocaloric dieting lead to a hypothesis of the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (Fig. 6): The accumulation of fat in liver and secondarily in the pancreas will lead to self-reinforcing cycles that interact to bring about type 2 diabetes. Fatty liver leads to impaired fasting glucose metabolism and increases export of VLDL triacylglycerol (85), which increases fat delivery to all tissues, including the islets. The liver and pancreas cycles drive onward after diagnosis with steadily decreasing β-cell function. However, of note, observations of the reversal of type 2 diabetes confirm that if the primary influence of positive calorie balance is removed, then the processes are reversible (21).
In type 2 diabetes, even though insulin resistance is what leads to the condition, injections of insulin are not the first resort. Instead, other drugs are used to help boost insulin production and the body’s regulation of it. Insulin resistance occurs when the body’s cells don’t respond properly to insulin, which is a hormone made in the pancreas that’s responsible for ferrying glucose to cells for energy.
If the rapid changes in metabolism following bariatric surgery are a consequence of the sudden change in calorie balance, the defects in both insulin secretion and hepatic insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetes should be correctable by change in diet alone. To test this hypothesis, a group of people with type 2 diabetes were studied before and during a 600 kcal/day diet (21). Within 7 days, liver fat decreased by 30%, becoming similar to that of the control group, and hepatic insulin sensitivity normalized (Fig. 2). The close association between liver fat content and hepatic glucose production had previously been established (20,22,23). Plasma glucose normalized by day 7 of the diet.
First, speak with your doctor — you should not start relying on plants or stop your medicines on your own. You’ll need to work closely with your diabetes health-care provider, and you’ll need to do some research and monitor yourself. Still, millions of people are using plant medicines, and a number of them have written to Diabetes Self-Management to tell us that they’re working.
It's unclear how people get the disease — genetics plays a big role, though unknown environmental factors may also trigger the disease. Either way, the disease causes the immune system to mistakenly attack and kill insulin-producing cells, called beta cells, in the pancreas. (This differs from type 2 diabetes, in which the body initially makes sufficient insulin but the cells cannot properly use it.) Without enough insulin working to remove glucose from the blood stream, and allowing glucose to enter the body's cells, blood sugar levels spike. Left untreated, this insulin deficiency leads to a deadly complication called diabetic ketoacidosis. What's more, having high blood sugar over the long term can cause life-threatening complications such as kidney damage or heart disease, according to the Mayo Clinic.
“I am extremely pleased to see that technology developed in Tejal Desai’s group is getting to the point that we can explore this for therapeutic purposes,” Matthias Hebrok, PhD, the director of the Diabetes Center at UCSF and a member of Encellin’s scientific advisory board, noted on the UCSF website. “Encapsulation and protection of islet cells remain a critical hurdle that needs to be overcome before cell therapy becomes a reality in type 1 diabetes.”
Conventional: A dietary pattern that includes carbohydrates from fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and low-fat milk is encouraged for good health. Carbohydrate intake should be monitored using carbohydrate counting or experienced-based estimation. The Recommended Dietary Allowance for digestible carbohydrates is 130 g/day, which will provide a sufficient amount of glucose needed to fuel the central nervous system without reliance on glucose production from protein or fat. Using foods with a low glycemic index that are rich in fiber and other important nutrients is encouraged.
Dr. Mona Morstein is a naturopathic physician with a medical practice focused in integrative diabetes treatment. Her clinic, Arizona Integrative Medical Solutions, is located in Tempe, Arizona, where she sees patients of all ages and genders for acute and chronic conditions. An expert on prediabetes and diabetes, she is a frequent lecturer at conferences and webinars, and is the founder and executive director of The Low Carb Diabetes Association. Dr. Morstein is also a member of the Arizona Diabetes Coalition. Visit her website lowcarbdiabetes.org
Evidence linking hepatic insulin sensitivity to intraorgan triglyceride content has been steadily accumulating. In insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, insulin dose correlates with the extent of fatty liver (35), and in turn, this is associated with insulin sensitivity to suppression of hepatic glucose production (36). Decreasing the fat content of liver is associated with improvement in insulin suppression of glucose production and, thereby, with improvement in fasting plasma glucose (20,23).
Remember that a healthy diet, regular exercise, and the right medication are all critical to managing type 2 diabetes. Taking the medication your doctor has prescribed for you is key. “Medication adherence can help with glycemic control and A1C reduction, which we know helps with decreasing diabetic complications, like neuropathy, as well as kidney disease,” Gupta says.
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A newer class of diabetes medication, SGLT2 includes three medicines: canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin. These drugs remove extra sugar from your body by blocking it from the kidneys. It also causes your body to be more sensitive to insulin. The most common side effects caused by SGLT2 are vaginal yeast infections and urinary tract infections.


Hi, it’s midnight where I am and my family and I have been awake for an hour post intense leg cramps that I got from my obsessive eating disorder making my blood sugar reach extreme levels (rant!). To anyone who is unfamiliar with diabeties: The experience is hell. It is waking up at ungoldy hours from pain in your legs, bladder, sanity. You’re not the same person with erradic blood sugars. It’s sleeping 16 hours a day-unwillingly falling behind in everything. Keeping GALLONS of water near you to drink, and yet still being thirsty. It’s almost been two years for… Read more »
After every hospitalisation she used to come back with blood sugar under reasonable limits. Within 30 days or so, her blood sugar levels will start increasing. With the rising blood sugar level, she used to get severe tooth ache. To manage her tooth ache she used to take pain killers. After few days of use of pain killers her blood sugar will become very high. Almost 450 to 550.
“For me it’s a personal challenge – going from being completely 100% sedentary to climbing the highest mountain in Africa. One thing I’ve learnt on this journey is that I’m capable of so much more than I ever thought possible – and this is just another way of proving that to myself. It’s also a way of showing people with diabetes that there is always greatness within you; that you have the power to change your diagnosis and your destiny one step at a time.”
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