"We plan to account for differences from mouse to human by helping dogs first. This way, the dogs can inform us on how well the treatment might work in humans," said Clarissa Hernandez Stephens, first author on the research and a graduate researcher in Purdue’s Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering. Findings appear in early view for a forthcoming issue of the American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Q. I have Type 2 diabetes, and I currently take 1,000 milligrams (mg) of metformin twice a day, 5 mg of Onglyza (saxagliptin) once a day, and 5 mg of glipizide once a day. Does it matter when I take the Onglyza and the glipizide? I used to take them both at breakfast, but I thought I might get better blood-glucose-lowering coverage if I took one of them with lunch and one with dinner.
The core problem is insulin. Most people naturally secrete that substance when they eat something with carbohydrates, such as bread, potatoes and candy bars. Insulin acts like a concierge that escorts the sugar from the bloodstream into the cells, providing the cells with the energy to function. In most people, the body is continually monitoring blood sugar and producing insulin as needed.
The researchers have cured mice, which are genetically similar to people but different enough that new rounds of animal testing — and millions of dollars more — are needed before human trials can begin. The researchers’ approach is sure to garner skeptics, at least in part because it is a significant departure from the many other attempts at curing diabetes, which typically involve transplanting new cells and/or suppressing the immune system’s attempts to kill off useful ones.
Can prediabetes be “cured”? In the early stages of prediabetes (and type 2 diabetes), diligent attention to food choices and activity, and most importantly weight loss, can improve blood sugar numbers, effectively “reversing” the disease and reducing the odds of developing type 2 diabetes. However, some people may have underlying factors (such as family history and genetics) that put them at a greater risk of type 2 diabetes, meaning they will always require careful attention to blood sugar levels and lifestyle choices. Returning to old habits will likely put someone back on the road to prediabetes, and eventually, type 2 diabetes.
Rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (ACTOS) are in a group of drugs called thiazolidinediones. These drugs help insulin work better in the muscle and fat and also reduce glucose production in the liver. The first drug in this group, troglitazone (Rezulin), was removed from the market because it caused serious liver problems in a small number of people. So far rosiglitazone and pioglitazone have not shown the same problems, but users are still monitored closely for liver problems as a precaution. Both drugs appear to increase the risk for heart failure in some individuals, and there is debate about whether rosiglitazone may contribute to an increased risk for heart attacks. Both drugs are effective at reducing A1C and generally have few side effects. 
Garlic: Potent, but effective. Garlic is known as one of the oldest medicines in the world…and with good reason. An animal study that administered high doses of raw garlic to rats for 4 weeks found that it had a profound effect of reducing blood glucose levels, as well as cholesterol and triglycerides compared to rats who did not receive raw garlic (2). They also tested rats with boiled garlic, and saw no changes in blood glucose, so the benefit comes from raw garlic.

Recent global increase in diabetes, especially type II diabetes, is a product of the global obesity epidemic and attendant increase in Metabolic syndrome. In turn this has fueled an increase in surgical intervention in the form of Bariatric surgery. Diabetes reversal often follows sustained weight loss and indeed a 2014 Cochrane review of such surgeries found diabetes improvement in 5 randomized clinical trials (4). However, depending on the country and insurance plans, such weight loss surgery can be costly. They're also not risk-free with risks varying greatly depending on the person's overall health profile and age as well as skill and experience of the surgeon.

They also have to balance the food they eat with the amount of insulin they take and their activity level. That's because eating some foods will cause blood sugar levels to go up more than others, whereas insulin and exercise will make blood sugar go down. How much the blood sugar level goes up after eating depends on the type of nutrients the food contains.


Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). If your blood sugar level drops below your target range, it's known as low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Your blood sugar level can drop for many reasons, including skipping a meal, inadvertently taking more medication than usual or getting more physical activity than normal. Low blood sugar is most likely if you take glucose-lowering medications that promote the secretion of insulin or if you're taking insulin.
In investigating how BCG administration produces its beneficial effects, the research team identified a mechanism never previously seen in humans in response to treatment with any drug – a shifting of the process of glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation, the most common pathway by which cells convert glucose into energy, to aerobic glycolysis, a process that involves significantly greater glucose consumption by cells. The researchers also found that BCG could reduce blood sugar elevations in mice that were caused by means other than autoimmune attack, raising the possibility that BCG vaccines could also be beneficial against type 2 diabetes.”
According to the 2017 National Diabetes Statistics Report, over 30 million people living in the United States have diabetes. That’s almost 10 percent of the U.S. population. And diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, causing, at least in part, over 250,000 deaths in 2015. That’s why it’s so important to take steps to reverse diabetes and the diabetes epidemic in America.
“Three years after receiving two administrations of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine four weeks apart, all members of a group of adults with longstanding type 1 diabetes showed an improvement in HbA1c to near normal levels – improvement that persisted for the following five years. The study from a Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team – published in npj Vaccines – also reports that the effects of BCG vaccine on blood sugar control appear to depend on a totally novel metabolic mechanism that increases cellular consumption of glucose.
Dr. Steven Lin is a dentist who focusses on the mouth-body connection. Through ancestral nutrition, the oral and gut microbiome, and epigenetics, his programs aim to prevent chronic dental and systemic disease. His book 'The Dental Diet', will be released on January 18'. To receive free updates on functional oral health from Dr. Lin, subscribe to his newsletter below.
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